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Constitution of Virginia

Table of Contents

ARTICLE I

Bill of Rights
  • Section 1. Equality and rights of men.
  • Section 2. People the source of power.
  • Section 3. Government instituted for common benefit.
  • Section 4. No exclusive emoluments or privileges; offices not to be hereditary.
  • Section 5. Separation of legislative, executive, and judicial departments; periodical elections.
  • Section 6. Free elections; consent of governed.
  • Section 7. Laws should not be suspended.
  • Section 8. Criminal prosecutions.
  • Section 8-A. Rights of victims of crime.
  • Section 9. Prohibition of excessive bail and fines, cruel and unusual punishment, suspension of habeas corpus, bills of attainder, and ex post facto laws.
  • Section 10. General warrants of search or seizure prohibited.
  • Section 11. Due process of law; obligation of contracts; taking of private property; prohibited discrimination; jury trial in civil cases.
  • Section 12. Freedom of speech and of the press; right peaceably to assemble, and to petition.
  • Section 13. Militia; standing armies; military subordinate to civil power.
  • Section 14. Government should be uniform.
  • Section 15. Qualities necessary to preservation of free government.
  • Section 15-A. Marriage.
  • Section 16. Free exercise of religion; no establishment of religion.
  • Section 17. Construction of the Bill of Rights.

ARTICLE II

Franchise and Officers

ARTICLE III

Division of Powers

ARTICLE IV

Legislature

ARTICLE V

Executive

ARTICLE VI

Judiciary

ARTICLE VII

Local Government

ARTICLE VIII

Education
  • Section 1. Public schools of high quality to be maintained.
  • Section 2. Standards of quality; State and local support of public schools.
  • Section 3. Compulsory education; free textbooks.
  • Section 4. Board of Education.
  • Section 5. Powers and duties of the Board of Education.
  • Section 6. Superintendent of Public Instruction.
  • Section 7. School boards.
  • Section 8. The Literary Fund.
  • Section 9. Other educational institutions.
  • Section 10. State appropriations prohibited to schools or institutions of learning not owned or exclusively controlled by the State or some subdivision thereof; exceptions to rule.
  • Section 11. Aid to nonpublic higher education.

ARTICLE IX

Corporations

ARTICLE X

Taxation and Finance
  • Section 1. Taxable property; uniformity; classification and segregation.
  • Section 2. Assessments.
  • Section 3. Taxes or assessments upon abutting property owners.
  • Section 4. Property segregated for local taxation; exceptions.
  • Section 5. Franchise taxes; taxation of corporate stock.
  • Section 6. Exempt property.
  • Section 6-A. Property tax exemption for certain veterans.
  • Section 7. Collection and disposition of State revenues.
  • Section 7-A. Lottery Proceeds Fund; distribution of lottery revenues.
  • Section 8. Limit of tax or revenue. Revenue Stabilization Fund.
  • Section 9. State debt.
  • Section 10. Lending of credit, stock subscriptions, and works of internal improvement.
  • Section 11. Governmental employees retirement system.

ARTICLE XI

Conservation
  • Section 1. Natural resources and historical sites of the Commonwealth.
  • Section 2. Conservation and development of natural resources and historical sites.
  • Section 3. Natural oyster beds.
  • Section 4. Right of the people to hunt, fish, and harvest game.

ARTICLE XII

Future Changes

SCHEDULE

  • Section 1. Effective date of revised Constitution.
  • Section 2. Officers and elections.
  • Section 3. Laws, proceedings, and obligations unaffected.
  • Section 4. Qualifications of judges.
  • Section 5. First session of General Assembly following adoption of revised Constitution.

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